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2 edition of Formation and reactions of nitrate and nitrite in vivo. found in the catalog.

Formation and reactions of nitrate and nitrite in vivo.

Robert L. Saul

Formation and reactions of nitrate and nitrite in vivo.

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Published .
Written in English


The Physical Object
Pagination141 leaves.
Number of Pages141
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL14731419M

Organic nitrates are metabolized to both nitrite and NO in vivo. The data from Alzawahra and colleagues add another twist to the not yet fully resolved mystery of the metabolism and action of organic nitrates. In addition to pharmaceuticals, our diet also represents an important source of nitrite, mainly provided by inorganic nitrate.   Nitrate and Nitrite also contribute in Nitrogen content, for example, say the value of TAN is 1 ppm (we don't know the ammonium or ammonia) and we .


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Formation and reactions of nitrate and nitrite in vivo. by Robert L. Saul Download PDF EPUB FB2

Nitrite formation from nitrate and abolishes the vasodilatory response of nitrate, implicating nitrite as the central active agent (Webb et al., b). When swallowed, some nitrite is subsequently reduced to NO in the stomach by a non-enzymic, low pH-dependent mechanism where it modulates gastric fluid production and confers defence againstCited by:   Inorganic nitrate (NO 3 −), nitrite (NO 2 −) and NO are nitrogenous species with a diverse and interconnected chemical formation of NO from nitrate and nitrite via a reductive ‘nitrate–nitrite–NO’ pathway and resulting in vasodilation is now an established complementary route to traditional NOS‐derived vasodilation.

Nitrate, found in our diet and abundant Cited by: Nitrate, found in our diet and abundant in mammalian tissues and circulation, is activated via reduction to nitrite predominantly by our commensal oral microbiome.

The subsequent in vivo reduction of nitrite, a stable vascular reserve of NO, is facilitated by a number of haem-containing and molybdenum-cofactor by:   Photolysis of aqueous NO3- with λ ≥ nm is known to induce the formation of NO2- and O2 as the only stable products.

The mechanism of NO3- photolysis, however, is complex, and there is still uncertainty about the primary photoprocesses and subsequent reactions. This is, in part, due to photoisomerization of NO3- to ONOO- at λ formation of •OH and •NO2 Cited by: formed by the microbial reduction of nitrate and in vivo by reduction from ingested nitrate.

Nitrite can also be formed chemically in distribution pipes by Nitrosomonas bacteria during stagnation of nitrate-containing and oxygen-poor drinking-water in galvanized steel pipes, or if chloramination is used to provide a residual disinfectant.

F~ 'lo, Vol pp pereumon pr Ltd panted ìn Great ßritnrn NITRITE SOURCES AND NITROSAMINE FORMATION IN VITRO AND IN VIVO* C. WALTFRs, F. CARR, C. DYKE, M. SAXBY and P. SMITH British Food Manufacturing Industries Research Association, Leatherhead, Surrey and R.

WALKER Department of Biochemistry, University of Surrey. Abstract. An acute inflammatory response is mounted in response to a stimulus such as tissue damage or the presence of an invading pathogen ().If this stimulus cannot be removed, then chronic inflammation will develop as classically shown in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Nitrite is a product of spontaneous or metalloenzyme-catalyzed oxidation of NO. In aqueous solution nitrite is a weak nucleophile and a poor one-electron oxidant, and therefore not expected to react with thiolates, except at acidic pH when nitrite is converted into the nitrosating species N Formation and reactions of nitrate and nitrite in vivo.

book O 3 or, at pH nitrite with sulfide. in vivo formation through endogenous NO production may add. ing nitrite from nitrate and catalyzing nitrosation reactions. In this Ranges of nitrate, nitrite and nitric oxide exposure from.

The principle sources of nitrate contamination in water are thus fertilizers, animal waste, and septic tank wastes.

The water supplies most vulnerable to nitrate contamination are in agricultural areas and in well waters having a close or hydraulic relationship to septic tanks. Nitrate in drinking water can be responsible for a temporary blood disorder in infants called methemoglobinemia (blue.

Nitrate and nitrite are potentially dangerous substances which can have a detrimental effect on the ecological balance of rivers and lakes, and can cause harm to human health. This book puts into context the magnitude and complexity of the problems caused by nitrate and nitrite, and provides advice and information on ways to combat it.

Nitrate biosynthesis appears to be from nitric oxide to N 2 O 3 and the reaction of N 2 O 3 with water to yield nitrite. Nitrite is rapidly oxidized to nitrate through reaction with hemoglobin.

Other cell types can also form nitric oxide, generally from arginine. Whereas the reaction of nitrite with fully deoxygenated Hb leads to a formation of HbNO and metHb (Eqn 2 and Eqn 3), the in vivo situation is more complex. The blood O 2 saturation cycles between practically full saturation in arterial blood and intermediate saturations in venous blood.

Nitrate (NO 3 −) and nitrite (NO 2 −) anions have long been identified as stable products of NO oxidation, but in recent years the nitrate—nitrite—nitric oxide reductive pathway has emerged as an alternative route to the classical enzymatic NO formation by oxidation of.

The difference is in their chemical structure. Nitrates contain one nitrogen and three oxygen molecules (NO 3). Nitrites have one nitrogen and two oxygen molecules (NO 2).

In the body, there is a nitrate -> nitrite -> nitric oxide pathway which means a nitrate can turn into a nitrite, which can turn into nitric oxide (NO). Nitrates and nitrites are compounds consisting of nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Nitrates can turn into nitrites, which can then form either nitric oxide (good) or nitrosamines (bad).

Where nitrates. Bioactivation of nitrate starts with its reduction to nitrite, a reaction mainly carried out by oral commensal bacteria.

Nitrite is absorbed systemically and can signal via at least three different redox-dependent pathways: nitric oxide (NO) formation (middle), nitrosation reactions (right), or nitration reactions (left).

Conversion of nitrite into other reactive nitrogen oxides is catalyzed by a variety. Nitrates can be transformed into nitrites through digestion when bacteria in the mouth and enzymes in our body breakdown the nitrates into nitrites.

Nitrites typically transform into two distinct compounds in our body: Nitric oxide, which is good for human health. Cancer risk associated with endogenous nitrosamine formation is a function of four variables: the amount of nitrite ingested or formed from nitrate, the amount of nitrosatable substances ingested, the rate of in vivo nitrosation, and the carcinogenic potency of the resulting nitrosamine.

the supernatant such that the nitrite or nitrate concen-tration is less than mg/l and use in the test. Alternatively, the samples may be deproteinated with concentrated Carrez solutions (see ‘Meat and meat products’). Determination of nitrite and nitrate in juice Accurately weigh about 5 g of well homogenized.

Nineteen flavonoids, five phenolics, two coumarins, maltol and L-ascorbic acid were tested as scavenger of nitrite which is believed to participate in the formation of N-nitroso compounds.

Many were found to be potent scavenger and the five most potent ones were (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, phloroglucinol, caffeic acid and L-ascorbic acid. The nitrite scavenging effect was higher at pH These reactions were inhibited by nitrate and azide, which indicates that the nitrite was reduced by nitrite reductase.

The potential for nitrosamine formation was determined by the nitrosation of 2,3-diaminonaphthalene to form fluorescent naphthotriazole (Ji & Hollocher, a, b ; Misko et al., ).

The amount of nitrite necessary for complete formation of nitric oxide myoglobin is very small and the presence of no more than 25 mg/kg of nitrite in the cured meat is enough to ensure an adequately stable colour. At least four times this level is essential to produce a full development of the typical cured flavour.

The balance of the above reactions makes the rate of nitrite formation third order in the constituents d2. dt 2. The rate of k ~ 5 x M-2s-1 (at 25°C) does not depend on the pH [36]. The formation of the NO2 intermediate is the rate-limiting step in this oxidation of NO^.

Oxidation reactions usually result in the formation of the nitrate ion, with nitrogen in oxidation state +5. For example, oxidation with permanganate ion can be used for quantitative analysis of nitrite (by titration): 5 NO−. 2 + 2 MnO−. 4 + 6 H + → 5 NO−. Sodium nitrate is an inorganic nitrate salt of an alkali metal with the chemical formula NaNO 3.

Commonly referred to as “Chile saltpeter”, this compound consists of a sodium cation (Na +) and a nitrate anion (NO 3 –). At room temperature, sodium nitrate exists as a white, crystalline solid which is highly soluble in water.

From Nitrite/Nitrate to NO. During fasting conditions with low intake of nitrite/nitrate, enzymatic NO formation from NOS accounts for the majority of nitrite (Rhodes, Leone, et al. On the basis of these studies, it was believed that NO is acutely terminated by oxidation to nitrite and nitrate.

Nitrites are known to hold one nitrogen atom along with two oxygen atoms, whereas nitrates are known to hold one nitrogen atom, bonded to three different oxygen atoms. A nitrite can become a nitrate by the process of oxidation and similarly, a nitrate can become a nitrite by the process of reduction.

After 6 min, nitrite formation had started in both the control and Nitrate microcosms of donor A and the nitrate group of donor B. Yet, it is unclear what happens to the nitrate in the control microcosms of donor B, e.g., whether it is used in a different pathway where no nitrite is formed. Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency and NADPH oxidase plays key roles in endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic plaque formation.

Recent evidence demonstrates that nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway in vivo exerts beneficial effects upon the cardiovascular system. We aimed to investigate the effects of dietar. Nitrite plays a role in a variety of chemical reactions, such as the making of nitrite salts and oxidation-reduction reactions.

One of these reactions is the formation of a weak acid called. NOx (nitrite and nitrate, the stable metabolites of NO) quantity in supernatants was determined via Griess reaction utilizing a NOx concentration assay kit (R and D Systems Inc., Minneapolis, MN).

Rat cardiac tissues were harvested and similarly processed as described above. Nitrotyrosine is the accepted footprint of in vivo ONOO − formation. Although inorganic nitrate is a relatively stable molecule, under specific conditions it can be metabolised in the body to produce NO via the newly discovered nitrate–nitrite–NO pathway.

NO is a major signalling molecule in the human body, and has a key role in maintaining vascular tone, smooth muscle cell proliferation, platelet activity. to nitrite, whereas in whole blood in the presence of oxygen-ated Hb, nitrite is rapidly further oxidized to nitrate,39 Therefore, plasma nitrate is normally much higher than nitrite, and as a consequence, NOx is almost identical to nitrate.

Plasma nitrite levels are usually in the range to. The reaction kinetics depends on several variables being favored by high temperature, acid pH with the amine protonated, large amount of residual nitrite and longer time of storage.

Peroxynitrite (sometimes called peroxonitrite) is an ion with the formula ONOO −.It is an unstable structural isomer of nitrate, NO − gh its conjugate acid peroxynitrous acid is highly reactive, peroxynitrite is stable in basic solutions.

It is prepared by the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with nitrite. H 2 O 2 + NO − 2 → ONOO − + H 2 O. is supported by accepting a relative potency for nitrite and nitrate with respect to methaemoglobin formation of (on a molar basis). 1 As nitrate and nitrite are chemicals of significant concern in some natural waters, the chemical fact sheet on nitrate and nitrite has been expanded.

Recently, nitrite-induced activation of endothelial •NO synthase is reported. This review deals with the redox reactions of phenolic compounds with nitrite to produce •NO and the various reactions of the products of phenolic compounds with •NO, nitrite, and a salivary component thiocyanate under the simulated stomach conditions.

The presence of nitrite (NO 2 −) and nitrate (NO 3 −) in bodily fluids has been known for some y studies carried out by Mitchell et al 1 at the beginning of the 20th century established that the amounts of nitrate excreted in the urine are higher than those ingested with the food, suggesting that the excess nitrate must be a product of endogenous biosynthesis.

Those related to the reaction of nitrite (from the reduction of nitrate or occurring by itself) with haemoglobin to form methaemoglobin which can reduce oxygen transport in the blood, and a. Denitrification plays an important role in the reduction of nitrate (NO3-) to nitrite (NO2-) which was the first step in curing at a time when saltpetre was used in curing brines as the starting ingredient en route to nitric oxide formation.

Nitrite is the second step in the chemical reaction sequence of. In addition to oxidizing oxyHb, nitrite has also been shown to react with deoxyHb to form metHb and iron-nitrosyl hemoglobin [42; 64; 65].Doyle and coworkers reported observing catalysis of the nitrite reaction with deoxyhemoglobin by HNO, but no such catalysis was reported for the reaction of nitrite with oxyHb [].In this paper, we show that HNO also accelerates the reaction of nitrite with.().

Effects of different levels of ozone on ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and dissolved organic carbon in sterilization of seawater. Desalination and Water Treatment: Vol. 52, No.pp.